Cannabidiol (CBD) is usually the primary cannabinoid of fiber or industrial hemp/cannabis and the second most prevalent cannabinoid in drug types of the cannabis plant. In fiber cannabis, CBD is present in concentrations in the range of about 0.5 to 2 % in the upper third of the plant and the flowers. In Germany and many other countries of the world farmers are allowed to grow fibre cannabis with high CBD and low THC concentrations (in the European Union below 0.2 % THC) for the production of fibre, which serves as raw material for industrial and other applications, and hemp seeds for the production of hemp seed oil, a high-quality vegetable oil. In recent years there is increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of CBD, which causes no psychotropic effects and even in high doses does not cause relevant side-effects. Only a few clinical studies have been conducted so far, but basic research suggests a potential therapeutic use in a large number of diseases and symptoms.
As with other cannabinoids, there are several cannabinoids of the CBD type, of which usually the phenolic (neutral) form is meant when we talk about CBD. There are also a few pharmacological effects of CBD acid, which may be of therapeutic interest, mainly the anti-emetic properties of this acid form.
Pharmahemp produces and distributes the active ingredient CBD for dietary supplement and cosmetic products.
An Israeli company has developed a cannabis strain that contains 15.8 % CBD and less than one percent of THC (Reuters of 3 July 2012) and does not cause psychological effects. Such strains could have a potential as anti-inflammatory drugs.
Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has allowed the conduction of clinical studies with a new cannabis extract that contains cannabidiol as its active ingredient, for use in treating children with the Dravet syndrome, a rare and severe form of infantile-onset, genetic, drug-resistant epilepsy syndrome. The pharmaceutical company hopes to start the trials in 2014. In addition to its clinical development program for the extract in Dravet syndrome, the company has also made arrangements to enable independent U.S. pediatric epilepsy specialists to treat high need pediatric epilepsy cases with cannabis extract immediately.
In the Netherlands, a pharmaceutical company, which is producing several strains of cannabis flowers to be prescribed by Dutch physicians under the guidance of the Health Ministry of the Netherlands, intends to add a CBD rich variety to their four varieties currently available.
Currently, 20 US states and the District of Columbia allow the medical use of cannabis. A large number of products, including CBD tinctures with very high CBD contents, CBD oil drops, CBD chewing gum, other products ready for use, and cannabis seeds, which yield cannabis plants with high CBD contents are available in these states.